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The purpose of the Remedial Design (RD) phase is to convert the conceptual design for the selected remedy into a full-scale design ready for implementation. Upon completion of the RD phase, the Remedial Action Construction (RA-C) phase is conducted to implement the remedy.

Jump to Resources to access Policies & Guidance, Publications, Related Sites, and Tools



The RD and RA-C phases form the foundation for the remedial action (RA) and support the ultimate goal of achieving the cleanup goals during Remedial Action Operations (RA-O). Remedy optimization during the RD and RA-C phases is required for DON sites in accordance with the DON Policy for Optimizing Remedial and Removal Actions at All DON Environmental Restoration Program Sites.

Remedial Design

The RD phase includes preparation of the drawings, specifications, and Remedial Action Work Plans (RAWPs) required to implement the full-scale remedy. Additional information is provided in the DON Guidance for Optimizing Remedy Evaluation, Selection, and Design. DON policy and guidance also endorse the use of green and sustainable remediation (GSR) metrics as a best practice in RD. Key considerations in the RD phase include: 

  • Drawings and specifications that provide a degree of detail adequate to implement the remedy;

  • RAWPs that describe implementation of the remedy and land use controls (as applicable);

  • Project-specific construction Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) that includes quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) provisions;

  • Applicable permits, approvals, and site access agreements should be obtained during the RD phase. RAs that are conducted entirely on site typically do not require federal, state, or local permits to engage in the remediation activity under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); however, the substantive requirements must still be met for on-site efforts.

  • RD optimization that incorporates lifecycle design concepts for more sustained mass removal rate over time and lower lifecycle costs;

  • GSR best management practices that adapt design concepts to minimize the environmental footprint of remedies; and 

  • Design-build contracts that allow for the design to evolve (as needed) over the course of the project even after construction has commenced. 


Remedial Action-Construction

Upon completion of the RD phase, implementation of the RA begins. RA-C is the period during which construction occurs to implement the remedy. The RA-C contractor is required to demonstrate that the system is functioning in accordance with the design. The Remedy-in-Place (RIP) milestone is achieved when RA-C is complete. Key considerations in the RA-C phase include: 

  • Site preparation and on-site construction;

  • Pre-final and final inspection and correction of deficiencies;

  • Demonstration that the remedy is operating properly and successfully in accordance with the design;

  • Interim Remedial Action Completion Report (I-RACR) for remedies that will transition to the RA-O phase;

  • Remedial Action Completion Report (RACR) for remedies that have achieved the Response Complete (RC) milestone;   

  • Site Closeout may be achieved after RA-C if the remedy has accomplished the remedial action objectives (RAOs) and the site conditions allow for unlimited use/unrestricted exposure (UU/UE) of the property.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides additional guidance in the Remedial Design/Remedial Action Handbook (OSWER 9355.0.04B). For more information, Chapter 10 of the DON Environmental Restoration Program Manual details RD and RA-C considerations.



Title and Description

ERP Manual

DON Environmental Restoration Program Manual: Chapter 10 RD/RA (February 2018)

Outlines key considerations for optimized remedial design and remedial actions.

Optimization Policy

DON Policy for Optimizing Remedial and Removal Actions at All DON Environmental Restoration Program Sites (April 2012)

Clarifies when to perform optimization reviews and provides effective strategies to meet remedial action objectives. Requires consideration of: 1) GSR metrics; 2) remedial alternatives analysis (RAA); and 3) the Management and Monitoring Approach (MMA).

GSR Metrics

DON Guidance on Green Sustainable Remediation (April 2012)

Discusses how to incorporate GSR metrics into projects. Methods for evaluating remedy footprint are discussed, along with case studies and recommended strategies for footprint reduction.

Remedy Evaluation

DON Guidance for Optimizing Remedy Evaluation, Selection, and Design (March 2010)

Provides a general overview and explanation of key optimization concepts as they pertain to the Feasibility Study (FS), Record of Decision (ROD), and RD and provides specific recommendations for optimizing remedy selection and design.

Site Closeout

DON Guidance to Documenting Milestones Throughout the Site Closeout Process (March 2006)

Outlines a consistent approach for documenting specific milestones for achieving site closeout.

Site Closeout

DoD/EPA Joint Guidance on Streamlined Site Closeout and NPL Deletion Process For DoD Facilities (January 2006)

Streamlines the site closeout and National Priorities List (NPL) deletion process for DoD facilities.


Title and Description

Mass Estimates

Tools for Estimating Contaminant Mass-in-Place, Mass Discharge, and Remediation Timeframes (August 2018)

Provides an overview of tools and techniques to estimate contaminant mass-in-place, contaminant mass discharge, and remediation timeframes. Case studies illustrate how tool results improved site-specific remedial strategies.


DoN Remedial Action Completion Report (RACR) in the Navy’s Site Closeout Process, NAVFAC Factsheet (20 November 2014)

Bioremediation Design

NAVFAC Advances in the State of the Practice for Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation (EISB) (February 2018)

Provides best practices to design and apply EISB, with a primary focus on chlorinated ethene remediation. Highlights recent innovations to facilitate successful applications.

Production Well Design

NAVFAC Production Well Construction and Maintenance Fact Sheet (April 2017)

Describes how to maintain the functioning of production wells (including groundwater extraction and reagent injection wells). Covers best practices for production well design and construction.

Landfill               Cap Design, Passive Controls

NAVFAC Sustainable Long Term Management of Landfills under the Navy's Environmental Restoration Program (April 2016)

Sustainable long-term management of landfills helps to minimize the lifecycle depletion of energy, material, and financial resources. Addresses optimized landfill cap design and maintenance considerations, along with passive controls, and other key issues.


NAVFAC Green and Sustainable Remediation Best Management Practices (BMPs) (September 2016)

Summarizes GSR BMPs for commonly used remediation technologies in order to further promote their adoption. The technologies covered include air sparging, biosparging, soil vapor extraction (SVE), enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), thermal treatment, groundwater extraction and treatment (GWET), and excavation.

Engineered Biogeochemical Transformation

NAVFAC Biogeochemical Transformation Handbook (October 2015)

In situ biogeochemical transformation (ISBGT) processes result in the degradation of contaminants through combined biological, mineral, and chemical pathways. Methods and amendments for engineering ISBGT processes are summarized.

In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) Design

NAVFAC Design Considerations for In Situ Chemical Oxidation (March 2015)

Provides a framework for design submittals of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) systems. Includes best practices for ISCO design and lessons learned from Navy sites related to implementation and performance.

Bioremediation Design

NAVFAC Design Considerations for Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (March 2015)

Provides a framework for design submittals of ERD systems. Includes best practices for ERD design and lessons learned from Navy sites related to implementation and performance.



NAVFAC Best Practices for Injection and Distribution of Amendments (March 2013)

Presents best practices for introducing liquid and solid phase amendments into aquifers and improving distribution. Includes key components of an injection design plan.

In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) Design

ESTCP In Situ Chemical Oxidation Technology Practices Manual (November 2010)

Facilitates conceptual to detailed design of ISCO projects based upon best practices from case studies.

Passive Bioventing Design

ESTCP Design Document for Passive Bioventing (March 2006)

Details materials and methods for pilot testing and design considerations for full-scale implementation of passive bioventing.

Bioremediation Design

ESTCP Principles and Practices of Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents (August 2004)

Describes site selection, design, and performance criteria for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation.

Surfactant Design

NAVFAC Surfactant-Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) Design Manual (April 2002)

Provides information to evaluate and design in situ surfactant flooding operations for chlorinated solvent source zone remediation.

Air Sparging Design

NAVFAC Air Sparging Guidance Document (August 2001)

Provides information on the selection, design, installation, operation, and optimization of air sparging systems.

Bioslurping, Multiphase Extraction Design

NAVFAC Application Guide for Bioslurping Volume II (October 1998)

Describes bioslurper systems, testing procedures, system design, operation, monitoring and approach for site closure.

Biopile                Design

NAVFAC Biopile Design and Construction Manual (June 1996)

Includes design and construction considerations for biopile remediation systems.


Title and Description

In Situ



ESTCP Development of Design Tools for Planning Aqueous Amendment Injection Systems

Tools for the design of in situ bioremediation systems using soluble substrates (SS) and emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and ISCO systems using permanganate.





NAVFAC Green and Sustainable Remediation BMPs Screening Table

A spreadsheet that allows you to identify GSR BMPs applicable to the site remedy. The technologies covered include air sparging, biosparging, SVE, ERD, ISCO, thermal treatment, GWET, and excavation.

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